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Author: Richard J. B. Bosworth
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1849660247
Pages: 608
Year: 2014-03-04
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In 1945, disguised in German greatcoat and helmet, Mussolini attempted to escape from the advancing Allied armies. Unfortunately for him, the convoy of which he was part was stopped by partisans and his features, made so familiar by Fascist propaganda, gave him away. Within 24 hours he was executed by his captors, joining those he sent early to their graves as an outcome of his tyranny, at least one million people. He was one of the tyrant-killers who so scarred interwar Europe, but we cannot properly understand him or his regime by any simple equation with Hitler or Stalin. Like them, his life began modestly in the provinces; unlike them, he maintained a traditonal male family life, including both wife and mistresses, and sought in his way to be an intellectual. He was cruel (though not the cruellist); his racism existed, but never without the consistency and vigor that would have made him a good recruit for the SS. He sought an empire; but, in the most part, his was of the old-fashioned, costly, nineteenth century variety, not a racial or ideological imperium. And, self-evidently Italian society was not German or Russian: the particular patterns of that society shaped his dictatorship. Bosworth's Mussolini allows us to come closer than ever before to an appreciation of the life and actions of the man and of the political world and society within which he operated. With extraordinary skill and vividness, drawing on a huge range of sources, this biography paints a picture of brutality and failure, yet one tempered with an understanding of Mussolini as a human being, not so different from many of his contemporaries.
Author: Peter Neville
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131761304X
Pages: 256
Year: 2014-09-15
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This new edition of Peter Neville’s Mussolini traces and analyses the life of one of the most fascinating twentieth century European dictators, Benito Mussolini, while placing his life in its historic Italian context. Engaging and accessible, the Duce’s career is traced from his roots as a journalist and socialist to his capture and execution in 1945, addressing crucial issues throughout: was Mussolini really a far right ideologist, or simply a political opportunist? How successful was he at communicating his core beliefs to the Italian people? This thoroughly updated new edition synthesises the scholarship of the last ten years to consider Italian atrocities in Africa, and the reaction to them by ordinary Italians, in addition to a consideration of the relationship between Mussolini and Hitler while other periods of Mussolini’s life are expanded upon and reconsidered. Finally, the author considers Mussolini’s legacy and his continuing influence in modern Italy. This biography gives students a useful analytical introduction to the period and the man and provides an explanation of what fascism was and why it resonated with so many people in Italy. It will be essential reading for all students of modern Italy and the history of fascism.
Benito Mussolini
Author: Jeremy Roberts
Publisher: Twenty-First Century Books
ISBN: 0822526484
Pages: 112
Year: 2005
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Presents the life and career of Il Duce, the dictator of Italy from 1922-1945.
Author: Jasper Ridley
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1461741793
Pages: 464
Year: 2000-09-05
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Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) was the founder of Fascism and iron-fisted ruler of Italy for two decades. He was also an extremely able politician who won the esteem of many statesmen—including Winston Churchill and influential persons in the United States. This biography describes Mussolini's childhood; his education (including his suspension from school for attacking other boys with knives); his World War I experiences and severe wounding; his involvement in, and eventual expulsion from the revolutionary Italian Socialist Party; his numerous love affairs, his early career as a journalist and his rise to power and brutal rule.
Author: Ray Moseley
Publisher: Taylor Trade Publications
ISBN: 1589790952
Pages: 432
Year: 2004
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Describes the last twenty months of the life of the Italian dictator, culminating with his capture and execution.
The Pope and Mussolini
Author: David I. Kertzer
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0679645535
Pages: 592
Year: 2014-01-28
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PULITZER PRIZE WINNER • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI’s secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. This groundbreaking work, based on seven years of research in the Vatican and Fascist archives, including reports from Mussolini’s spies inside the highest levels of the Church, will forever change our understanding of the Vatican’s role in the rise of Fascism in Europe. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. In most respects, they could not have been more different. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. They shared a distrust of democracy and a visceral hatred of Communism. Both were prone to sudden fits of temper and were fiercely protective of the prerogatives of their office. (“We have many interests to protect,” the Pope declared, soon after Mussolini seized control of the government in 1922.) Each relied on the other to consolidate his power and achieve his political goals. In a challenge to the conventional history of this period, in which a heroic Church does battle with the Fascist regime, Kertzer shows how Pius XI played a crucial role in making Mussolini’s dictatorship possible and keeping him in power. In exchange for Vatican support, Mussolini restored many of the privileges the Church had lost and gave in to the pope’s demands that the police enforce Catholic morality. Yet in the last years of his life—as the Italian dictator grew ever closer to Hitler—the pontiff’s faith in this treacherous bargain started to waver. With his health failing, he began to lash out at the Duce and threatened to denounce Mussolini’s anti-Semitic racial laws before it was too late. Horrified by the threat to the Church-Fascist alliance, the Vatican’s inner circle, including the future Pope Pius XII, struggled to restrain the headstrong pope from destroying a partnership that had served both the Church and the dictator for many years. The Pope and Mussolini brims with memorable portraits of the men who helped enable the reign of Fascism in Italy: Father Pietro Tacchi Venturi, Pius’s personal emissary to the dictator, a wily anti-Semite known as Mussolini’s Rasputin; Victor Emmanuel III, the king of Italy, an object of widespread derision who lacked the stature—literally and figuratively—to stand up to the domineering Duce; and Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, whose political skills and ambition made him Mussolini’s most powerful ally inside the Vatican, and positioned him to succeed the pontiff as the controversial Pius XII, whose actions during World War II would be subject for debate for decades to come. With the recent opening of the Vatican archives covering Pius XI’s papacy, the full story of the Pope’s complex relationship with his Fascist partner can finally be told. Vivid, dramatic, with surprises at every turn, The Pope and Mussolini is history writ large and with the lightning hand of truth.
Author: Nicholas Farrell
Publisher: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
ISBN: 1842121235
Pages: 533
Year: 2004
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How did Mussolini manage to take power and hold onto it through two decades? What inspired Churchill to call him 'the Roman genius' and Pope Pius XI to say he was 'sent by Providence'? How did he manage to do away with democracy and not use mass murder to stay in command?Mussolini ruled by popular demand but his fatal error was his alliance with Hitler, whom he despised. This union, according to Nicholas Farrell, was far from inevitable, the result more of Anglo-French incompetence and his fear of Hitler than a wild desire for war or world domination, let alone the extermination of the Jews.Drawing on a vast range of fresh material, Nicholas Farrell presents an intriguing and startling new picture of one of the key figures of the twentieth century.
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317898397
Pages: 376
Year: 2014-06-06
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Benito Mussolini was a brilliant Socialist journalist who in 1914 declared war, put himself at the head if the anti-Socialist movement in Italy, manoeuvred himself into power by 1933 and ruled the country until overthrown in 1943. He was a dynamic but insecure personality, who appeared dictatorial but always had to share power with the military and bureaucratic establishment. Mussolini founded an Empire in Africa and tried to 'make Italians' in his own heroic, war like image, but in fact failed to even control his own family! In June 1940, when France fell, he could not resist joining in the Second World War on the German side, although Italy was not equipped for serious fighting. His rule ended in Military disaster and personal humiliation. This new biography focuses both on Mussolini's personality and on the way he exercised power, and regards these two issues as closely linked. It sees him as a man with all the talents needed to attain power but few of those needed to exercise it well. This book primarily focuses on how Mussolini had absolutely the wrong personality for a successful political leader.
Benito Mussolini
Author: Christopher Hibbert, Benito Mussolini
Pages: 367
Year: 1962
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The Real Mussolini
Author: Rachel Mussolini
Publisher: [Farnborough, Eng.] : Saxon House
Pages: 294
Year: 1974
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Mussolini and Italy
Author: Edward Townley
Publisher: Heinemann
ISBN: 0435327259
Pages: 235
Year: 2002
View: 451
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Mussolini and Italy: student book.
Benito Mussolini
Author: Brenda Haugen
Publisher: Capstone
ISBN: 075651892X
Pages: 112
Year: 2006-12-01
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A biography of the prime minister of Italy who lead his country into World War II, befriended the Nazi leader of Germany, and was eventually executed by his own countrymen.
Mussolini and Italian Fascism
Author: Hamish Macdonald
Publisher: Nelson Thornes
ISBN: 0748733868
Pages: 64
Year: 1998-11-01
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'The Pathfinder History' series is designed to help students make the transition from GCSE to A level. Each book provides the student with a structured route through the A level process and develops the skills needed for examination success.
Author: Paolo Monelli
Pages: 304
Year: 1953
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Mussolini's Italy
Author: R. J. B. Bosworth
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 110107857X
Pages: 720
Year: 2007-01-30
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With Mussolini ’s Italy, R.J.B. Bosworth—the foremost scholar on the subject writing in English—vividly brings to life the period in which Italians participated in one of the twentieth century’s most notorious political experiments. Il Duce’s Fascists were the original totalitarians, espousing a cult of violence and obedience that inspired many other dictatorships, Hitler’s first among them. But as Bosworth reveals, many Italians resisted its ideology, finding ways, ingenious and varied, to keep Fascism from taking hold as deeply as it did in Germany. A sweeping chronicle of struggle in terrible times, this is the definitive account of Italy’s darkest hour.