Le Choix De La Defaite Les Elites Francaises Dans Les Annees 1930 Book PDF, EPUB Download & Read Online Free

Le choix de la défaite
Author: Annie Lacroix-Riz
Publisher: Armand Colin
ISBN: 2200256221
Pages: 688
Year: 2010-01-13
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Quelles sont les causes de la Défaite de 1940 ? Le grand historien Marc Bloch écrivait en avril 1944 : « Le jour viendra [...] et peut-être bientôt où il sera possible de faire la lumière sur les intrigues menées chez nous de 1933 à 1939 en faveur de l’Axe Rome-Berlin pour lui livrer la domination de l’Europe en détruisant de nos propres mains tout l’édifice de nos alliances et de nos amitiés. » Annie Lacroix-Riz analyse l’histoire des années 1930 pour éclairer les causes de la défaite de 1940. Selon elle, les Français n’ont pas été simplement vaincus en cinq jours par une Wehrmacht invincible ; le haut patronat les a sacrifiés à son plan de « réforme de l’État » copié sur les voisins fascistes et à son obsession d’accord avec le Reich. Cette affirmation incroyable paraît moins audacieuse à la lecture des archives, françaises et étrangères, relatives à une décennie d’actions des élites : militaires ; politiciens ; journalistes ; hommes d’affaires surtout, qui régnaient sur tous les autres, avec à leur tête la Banque de France et le Comité des Forges. L’autonomie des politiciens ou des journalistes relève ainsi du mythe, celle des militaires aussi. C’est bien la France des grands intérêts économiques et financiers qui dicta le choix de l’Allemagne comme partenaire privilégié dès les années 1920 et sabota l’alliance russe de revers qui avait évité la défaite en 1914. Aujourd'hui, l’accès aux archives éclaire les causes intérieures et extérieures de la Défaite et permet « l’instruction du procès de la vaste entreprise de trahison » que réclamait Marc Bloch. La présente édition de l’ouvrage a été systématiquement revue et complétée à la lumière des nombreux fonds d’archives, ouvrages et articles consultés depuis 2006.
Public Opinion and the End of Appeasement in Britain and France
Author: Daniel Hucker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317073541
Pages: 304
Year: 2016-04-15
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The 1930s policy of appeasement is still fiercely debated by historians, critics and contemporary political commentators, more than 70 years after the signing of the 1938 Munich Agreement. What is less well-understood, however, is the role of public opinion on the formation of British and French policy in the period between Munich and the outbreak of the Second World War; not necessarily what public opinion was but how it was perceived to be by those in power and how this contributed to the policymaking process. It therefore fills a considerable gap in an otherwise vast literature, seeking to ascertain the extent to which public opinion can be said to have influenced the direction of foreign policy in a crucial juncture of British and French diplomatic history. Employing an innovative and unique methodological framework, the author distinguishes between two categories of representation: firstly, 'reactive' representations of opinion, the immediate and spontaneous reactions of the public to circumstances and events as they occur; and secondly, 'residual' representations, which can be defined as the remnants of previous memories and experiences, the more general tendencies of opinion considered characteristic of previous years, even previous decades. It is argued that the French government of Édouard Daladier was consistently more attuned to the evolution of 'reactive' representations than the British government of Neville Chamberlain and, consequently, it was the French rather than the British who first pursued a firmer policy towards the European dictatorships. This comparative approach reveals a hitherto hidden facet of the diplomatic prelude to the Second World War; that British policy towards France and French policy towards Britain were influenced by their respective perceptions of public opinion in the other country. A sophisticated analysis of a crucial period in international history, this book will be essential reading for scholars of the origins of World War II, the political scenes of late 1930s Britain and France, and the study of public opinion and its effects on policy.
France in the Age of Organization
Author: Jackie Clarke
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857450816
Pages: 228
Year: 2011-06-30
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In interwar France, there was a growing sense that 'organization' was the solution to the nation's perceived social, economic and political ills. This book examines the roots of this idea in the industrial rationalization movement and its manifestations in areas as diverse as domestic organization and economic planning. In doing so, it shows how experts in fields ranging from engineering to the biological sciences shaped visions of a rational socio-economic order from the 1920s to Vichy and beyond.
Les philosophes des Lumières dans la France des années noires
Author: Pascale Pellerin
Publisher: Editions L'Harmattan
ISBN: 2296242618
Pages: 334
Year: 2009-12-01
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Cet essai ouvre une problématique nouvelle peu abordée par les historiens et les critiques littéraires, celle de la réception des textes des Lumières durant l'occupation nazie. Dans un contexte de rupture historique violente, les intellectuels vont s'appuyer sur les écrivains des Lumières pour dénoncer la Collaboration ou au contraire soutenir son bien-fondé.
The Great Class War 1914-1918
Author: Jacques R. Pauwels
Publisher: James Lorimer & Company
ISBN: 1459411072
Pages: 560
Year: 2016-04-06
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Historian Jacques Pauwels applies a critical, revisionist lens to the First World War, offering readers a fresh interpretation that challenges mainstream thinking. As Pauwels sees it, war offered benefits to everyone, across class and national borders. For European statesmen, a large-scale war could give their countries new colonial territories, important to growing capitalist economies. For the wealthy and ruling classes, war served as an antidote to social revolution, encouraging workers to exchange socialism's focus on international solidarity for nationalism's intense militarism. And for the working classes themselves, war provided an outlet for years of systemic militarization -- quite simply, they were hardwired to pick up arms, and to do so eagerly. To Pauwels, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 -- traditionally upheld by historians as the spark that lit the powder keg -- was not a sufficient cause for war but rather a pretext seized upon by European powers to unleash the kind of war they had desired. But what Europe's elite did not expect or predict was some of the war's outcomes: social revolution and Communist Party rule in Russia, plus a wave of political and social democratic reforms in Western Europe that would have far-reaching consequences. Reflecting his broad research in the voluminous recent literature about the First World War by historians in the leading countries involved in the conflict, Jacques Pauwels has produced an account that challenges readers to rethink their understanding of this key event of twentieth century world history.
The Myth of the Good War
Author: Jacques R. Pauwels
Publisher: James Lorimer & Company
ISBN: 145940873X
Pages: 328
Year: 2015-03-06
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In the spirit of historians Howard Zinn, Gwynne Dyer, and Noam Chomsky, Jacques Pauwels focuses on the big picture. Like them, he seeks to find the real reasons for the actions of great powers and great leaders. Familiar Second World War figures from Adolf Hitler to Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin are portrayed in a new light in this book. The decisions of Hitler and his Nazi government to go to war were not those of madmen. Britain and the US were not allies fighting shoulder to shoulder with no motive except ridding the world of the evils of Nazism. In Pauwels' account, the actions of the United States during the war years were heavily influenced by American corporations -- IBM, GM, Ford, ITT, and Standard Oil of New Jersey (now called Exxon) -- who were having a very profitable war selling oil, armaments, and equipment to both sides, with money gushing everywhere. Rather than analyzing Pearl Harbor as an unprovoked attack, Pauwels notes that US generals boasted of their success in goading Japan into a war the Americans badly wanted. One chilling account describes why President Truman insisted on using nuclear bombs against Japan when there was no military need to do so. Another reveals that Churchill instructed his bombers to flatten Dresden and kill thousands when the war was already won, to demonstrate British-American strength to Stalin. Leaders usually cast in a heroic mould in other books about this war look quite different here. Nations that claimed a higher purpose in going to war are shown to have had far less idealistic motives. The Second World War, as Jacques Pauwels tells it, was a good war only in myth. The reality is far messier -- and far more revealing of the evils that come from conflicts between great powers and great leaders seeking to enrich their countries and dominate the world.
L'impardonnable défaite : 1918-1940
Author: Claude Quétel
Publisher: JC Lattès
ISBN: 2709634805
Pages: 450
Year: 2010-01-13
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Le 22 juin 1940, la France signe une reddition déshonorante. C’est la pire catastrophe qu’ait connue ce pays pourtant riche en guerres et en malheurs depuis sa naissance. Comment et surtout pourquoi un tel désastre a-t-il été possible ? Une production historique considérable a été consacrée à ce sombre moment de notre histoire. Elle fait toujours état d’une sorte de fatalité, due à la démographie, aux circonstances, au destin. La tendance historiographique irait vers « l’inévitable » voire « l’excusable » défaite. Et pourtant, que d’erreurs, et que de responsables ! L’armée, la classe politique, les élites ont toutes joué la carte de la passivité et multiplié les erreurs stratégique et économiques. Tissant l’histoire officielle et des archives inédites dans un récit vivant et audacieux, L’Impardonnable défaite est une remarquable enquête historique et humaine. « Pour que le mal triomphe, il suffit que les hommes de bien ne fassent rien. » Cette phrase du philosophe Edmund Burke s’appliquerait parfaitement à la défaite française de 1940 si le constat n’était pas plus terrible encore : le mal a triomphé non seulement à cause de la passivité, mais surtout à cause des erreurs de la classe politique française. Telle est la thèse, polémique, courageuse et argumentée, de ce livre.
Wars and Capital
Author: Éric Alliez, Maurizio Lazzarato
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 1635900719
Pages: 456
Year: 2018-05-04
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A critique of capital through the lens of war, and a critique of war through the lens of the revolution of 1968. “We are at war,” declared the President of the French Republic on the evening of November 13, 2015. But what is this war, exactly? In Wars and Capital, Éric Alliez and Maurizio Lazzarato propose a counter-history of capitalism to recover the reality of the wars that are inflicted on us and denied to us. We experience not the ideal war of philosophers, but wars of class, race, sex, and gender; wars of civilization and the environment; wars of subjectivity that are raging within populations and that constitute the secret motor of liberal governmentality. By naming the enemy (refugees, migrants, Muslims), the new fascisms establish their hegemony on the processes of political subjectivation by reducing them to racist, sexist, and xenophobic slogans, fanning the flames of war among the poor and maintaining the total war philosophy of neoliberalism. Because war and fascism are the repressed elements of post-'68 thought, Alliez and Lazzarato not only read the history of capital through war but also read war itself through the strange revolution of '68, which made possible the passage from war in the singular to a plurality of wars—and from wars to the construction of new war machines against contemporary financialization. It is a question of pushing “'68 thought” beyond its own limits and redirecting it towards a new pragmatics of struggle linked to the continuous war of capital. It is especially important for us to prepare ourselves for the battles we will have to fight if we do not want to be always defeated.
De la mobilisation à la victoire (1939-1946)
Author: Jean-Paul AUTANT
Publisher: Editions L'Harmattan
ISBN: 2296490719
Pages: 402
Year: 2012-05-01
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L'auteur livre ici l'histoire de son père, Marcel Autant. Appelé au service militaire à la fin de l'été 1939, il combat à Stonne en mai 1940, s'engage dans l'armée d'armistice jusqu'à sa dissolution, est déporté au STO puis membre de la Résistance après son évasion. Son engagement lui permettra d'approcher d'éminents personnages tels de Lattre, Salan ou Béthouart.
To Lose a Battle
Author: Alistair Horne
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141937726
Pages: 736
Year: 2007-06-28
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In 1940, the German army fought and won an extraordinary battle with France in six weeks of lightning warfare. With the subtlety and compulsion of a novel, Horne’s narrative shifts from minor battlefield incidents to high military and political decisions, stepping far beyond the confines of military history to form a major contribution to our understanding of the crises of the Franco-German rivalry. To Lose a Battle is the third part of the trilogy beginning with The Fall of Paris and continuing with The Price of Glory (already available in Penguin).
The New Minority
Author: Justin Gest
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190632569
Pages: 272
Year: 2016-09-01
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It wasn't so long ago that the white working class occupied the middle of British and American societies. But today members of the same demographic, feeling silenced and ignored by mainstream parties, have moved to the political margins. In the United States and the United Kingdom, economic disenfranchisement, nativist sentiments and fear of the unknown among this group have even inspired the creation of new right-wing parties and resulted in a remarkable level of support for fringe political candidates, most notably Donald Trump. Answers to the question of how to rebuild centrist coalitions in both the U.S. and U.K. have become increasingly elusive. How did a group of people synonymous with Middle Britain and Middle America drift to the ends of the political spectrum? What drives their emerging radicalism? And what could possibly lead a group with such enduring numerical power to, in many instances, consider themselves a "minority" in the countries they once defined? In The New Minority, Justin Gest speaks to people living in once thriving working class cities--Youngstown, Ohio and Dagenham, England--to arrive at a nuanced understanding of their political attitudes and behaviors. In this daring and compelling book, he makes the case that tension between the vestiges of white working class power and its perceived loss have produced the unique phenomenon of white working class radicalization.
France 1940
Author: Philip Nord
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300190689
Pages: 208
Year: 2015-03-01
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In this revisionist account of France’s crushing defeat in 1940, a world authority on French history argues that the nation’s downfall has long been misunderstood. Philip Nord assesses France’s diplomatic and military preparations for war with Germany, its conduct of the war once the fighting began, and the political consequences of defeat on the battlefield. He also tracks attitudes among French leaders once defeat seemed a likelihood, identifying who among them took advantage of the nation’s misfortunes to sabotage democratic institutions and plot an authoritarian way forward. Nord finds that the longstanding view that France’s collapse was due to military unpreparedeness and a decadent national character is unsupported by fact. Instead, he reveals that the Third Republic was no worse prepared and its military failings no less dramatic than those of the United States and other Allies in the early years of the war. What was unique in France was the betrayal by military and political elites who abandoned the Republic and supported the reprehensible Vichy takeover. Why then have historians and politicians ever since interpreted the defeat as a judgment on the nation as a whole? Why has the focus been on the failings of the Third Republic and not on elite betrayal? The author examines these questions in a fascinating conclusion.
French Fascism
Author: Robert Soucy
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300070438
Pages: 352
Year: 1997-01-31
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This provocative book aims to demolish the notion that fascism never took place in France. Following on from the acclaimed 'French Fascism - the First Wave', the author continues the argument that France has had a long-standing fascist tradition.
Étrangers et sociétés
Author: Pilar González-Bernaldo, Manuela Martini, Marie-Louise Pelus
Publisher:
ISBN: 2753507260
Pages: 482
Year: 2008
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Before the Revisionist Controversy (RLE Marxism)
Author: H. Kendall Rogers
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317482514
Pages: 498
Year: 2015-04-24
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In this book, first published in 1992, the author examines the polemic fought by German Social-Democratic Party leaders and intellectuals Karl Kautsky and Eduard Bernstein against what they perceived to be misunderstandings of Marxism propagated by members of the Social-Democratic Federation (SDF) in England and by the socialist leader Wilhelm Liebknecht in Germany. The debate raised basic questions of socialist theory, including whether the program of Marx and Engels called for scholarly study, parliamentary democracy, and gradual social evolution, or for Utopian speculation, economic collapse, and violent rebellion.