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A feu et à sang
Author: Enzo Traverso
Publisher: Stock
ISBN: 2234066425
Pages: 384
Year: 2007-01-24
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La première moitié du XXe siècle fut une époque de guerres, de destructions et de révolutions qui mirent l'Europe à feu et à sang. De l'explosion du vieux monde en 1914 au nouvel équilibre instauré en 1945, le continent connut des temps de catastrophe et de chaos. Pour Enzo Traverso, la notion de « guerre civile européenne » permet de rendre compte de cette terrible combinaison de guerre totale sans front ni limites, de guerres civiles locales et de génocides, qui vit aussi laffrontement de visions opposées du monde. Dans une ample perspective solidement documentée, il en brosse les principaux traits : le mélange de violence archaïque, de violence administrative froide et de technologie moderne pour anéantir l'ennemi, la brutalisation de populations jetées dans l'exode ou l'exil, le déchaînement émotionnel des conflits entre civils au sein de sociétés déchirées (URSS 1917-1923, Espagne 1936-1939, Résistance 1939-1945) ou encore l'irruption de la peur et l'effroi de la mort dans l'esprit des hommes. Restituant également leur place aux protagonistes engagés, il analyse les positions de ces intellectuels de l'entre-deux guerres qui, à partir d'un égal rejet du monde en l'état, optèrent de façon opposée pour le communisme (tels Gramsci ou Benjamin) ou pour la révolution conservatrice (tels Jünger ou Schmitt). Il revient de même sur le combat des militants et résistants antifascistes, sans pour autant esquiver la question des liens avec le stalinisme ou celle de l'aveuglement face au génocide. Ce livre s'inscrit ainsi contre une relecture de cette période de l'histoire qui, sous couvert d'une critique des horreurs du totalitarisme, tend à rejeter les acteurs, fascistes ou antifascistes, dans le purgatoire indistinct des idéologies, comme si, derrière les victimes, aujourd'hui célébrées, tous les chats du passé étaient gris.
1914-1945, la guerre civile européenne
Author: Enzo Traverso
Publisher: Hachette Littératures
ISBN: 2012793908
Pages: 370
Year: 2009
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La première moitié du XXe siècle, de 1914 à 1945, fut une époque de guerres, de destructions et de révolutions qui mit l'Europe à feu et à sang. Pour Enzo Traverso, la notion de " guerre civile européenne " permet de rendre compte de cette terrible combinaison de guerre totale sans lois ni limites, de guerres civiles locales (URSS 1917-1923, Espagne 1936-1939, Résistance 1939-1945) et de génocides, qui vit aussi l'affrontement de visions opposées du monde. L'ouvrage analyse ainsi les positions de ces intellectuels de l'entre-deux-guerres qui, à partir d'un égal rejet du monde en l'état, optèrent soit pour le communisme, soit pour la révolution conservatrice. Il revient sur le combat des militants et résistants antifascistes, sans pour autant esquiver la question des liens avec le stalinisme ou celle de l'aveuglement face au génocide. Ce livre, paru en 1re édition chez Stock sous le titre A feu et à sang, s'inscrit ainsi contre une relecture de cette période de l'histoire qui, sous couvert d'une critique des horreurs du totalitarisme, tend à rejeter les acteurs, fascistes ou antifascistes, dans le purgatoire indistinct des idéologies, comme si, derrière les victimes, aujourd'hui célébrées, tous les chats du passé étaient gris.
Fire and Blood
Author: Enzo Traverso
Publisher: Verso Books
ISBN: 1784781347
Pages: 304
Year: 2016-02-16
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Europe’s second Thirty Years’ War—an epoch of blood and ashes Fire and Blood looks at the European crisis of the two world wars as a single historical sequence: the age of the European Civil War (1914–1945). Its overture was played out in the trenches of the Great War; its coda on a ruined continent. It opened with conventional declarations of war and finished with “unconditional surrender.” Proclamations of national unity led to eventual devastation, with entire countries torn to pieces. During these three decades of deepening conflicts, a classical interstate conflict morphed into a global civil war, abandoning rules of engagement and fought by irreducible enemies rather than legitimate adversaries, each seeking the annihilation of its opponents. It was a time of both unchained passions and industrial, rationalized massacre. Utilizing multiple sources, Enzo Traverso depicts the dialectic of this era of wars, revolutions and genocides. Rejecting commonplace notions of “totalitarian evil,” he rediscovers the feelings and reinterprets the ideas of an age of intellectual and political commitment when Europe shaped world history with its own collapse.
The End of Jewish Modernity
Author: Enzo Traverso
Publisher: Pluto Press (UK)
ISBN: 0745336663
Pages: 176
Year: 2016-07-06
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Jewish modernity flourished between the age of Enlightenment and World War II and in fact was a major driver of intellectual, scientific, social, literary, and artistic progress in that period. But the age of Jewish modernity is over. That s the argument that historian Enzo Traverso mounts in this provocative book. With great sensitivity and nuance, he teases out the fundamentally conservative turn that the mainstream of Jewish thought has taken in the years since World War II, revealing its roots in the Holocaust and the establishment of the United Nations and Israel as the new poles of Jewish communal life. Building his argument on a highly original reading of Hannah Arendt s writings on Jewishness and politics, Traverso offers both an elegy to a lost tradition and a damning intellectual history of the present. "
French Revolution
Author: François Furet, Denis Richet
Publisher:
ISBN:
Pages: 416
Year: 1970
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The Oxford Handbook of European History, 1914-1945
Author: Nicholas Doumanis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191017752
Pages: 672
Year: 2016-05-05
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The period spanning the two World Wars was unquestionably the most catastrophic in Europe's history. Despite such undeniably progressive developments as the radical expansion of women's suffrage and rising health standards, the era was dominated by political violence and chronic instability. Its symbols were Verdun, Guernica, and Auschwitz. By the end of this dark period, tens of millions of Europeans had been killed and more still had been displaced and permanently traumatized. If the nineteenth century gave Europeans cause to regard the future with a sense of optimism, the early twentieth century had them anticipating the destruction of civilization. The fact that so many revolutions, regime changes, dictatorships, mass killings, and civil wars took place within such a compressed time frame suggests that Europe experienced a general crisis. Indeed in the early 1940s both Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill referred to a 'thirty years war'. Why did so many crises rage across the continent from 1914 until the end of the Second World War? Why did the winds of destruction affect some regions more than others? The Oxford Handbook of European History, 1914-1945 reconsiders the most significant features of this calamitous age from a transnational perspective. It demonstrates the degree to which national experiences were intertwined with those of other nations, and how each crisis was implicated in wider regional, continental, and global developments. Readers will find innovative and stimulating chapters on various political, social, and economic subjects by some of the leading scholars working on modern European history today.
The Jews and Germany
Author: Enzo Traverso
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 0803244266
Pages: 215
Year: 1995
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The Jews and Germany debunks a modern myth: that once upon a time there was a Judeo-German symbiosis, in which two cultures met and brought out the best in each other. Enzo Traverso argues that to the contrary, the attainments of Jews in the German-speaking world were due to the Jews aspiring to be German, with little help from and often against the open hostility of Germans. As the Holocaust proved in murder and theft, German Jews could never be German enough. Now the works of German Jews are being published and reprinted in Germany. It is a matter of enormous difference whether the German rediscovery of German Jews is another annexation of Jewish property or an act of rebuilding a link between traditions. Traverso shows how tenuous the link was in the first place. He resumes the queries of German Jews who asked throughout the twentieth century what it meant to be both Jewish and German. Hannah Arendt, Gershom Scholem, Martin Buber, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Rosa Luxemburg, Franz Kafka, and many more thinkers of genius found the problems unavoidable and full of paradoxes. In returning to them Traverso not only demolishes a sugary myth but also reasserts the responsibility of history to recover memory, even if bitter and full of pain. Enzo Traverso was born in Italy in 1957. He currently works at the Bibliothique de documentation internationale contemporaine in Nanterre, where he is in charge of the German section of documentary research. He is also the author of The Marxists and the Jewish Question: History of a Debate, 1843-1943. Daniel Weissbort is a professor of English at the University of Iowa. He is the author of Inscription and the editor ofTranslating Poetry and The Poetry of Survival. His translations include Claude Simon's The World about Us.
Political Violence in Twentieth-Century Europe
Author: Donald Bloxham, Robert Gerwarth
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139501291
Pages:
Year: 2011-03-10
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This is a comprehensive history of political violence during Europe's incredibly violent twentieth century. Leading scholars examine the causes and dynamics of war, revolution, counterrevolution, genocide, ethnic cleansing, terrorism and state repression. They locate these manifestations of political violence within their full transnational and comparative contexts and within broader trends in European history from the beginning of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in the late nineteenth-century, through the two world wars, to the Yugoslav Wars and the rise of fundamentalist terrorism. The book spans a 'greater Europe' stretching from Ireland and Iberia to the Baltic, the Caucasus, Turkey and the southern shores of the Mediterranean. It sheds new light on the extent to which political violence in twentieth-century Europe was inseparable from the generation of new forms of state power and their projection into other societies, be they distant territories of imperial conquest or ones much closer to home.
La violence de guerre, 1914-1945
Author: Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau
Publisher: Editions Complexe
ISBN: 2870279116
Pages: 348
Year: 2002
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La chute du mur de Berlin a changé tout autant notre vision du passé que celle de notre futur. La coupure de 1945, inaugurale de la bipolarité du monde, s'est quelque peu estompée au profit d'une coupure plus ancienne, parfois sous-estimée, celle de 1914, provoquant un effet de perspective qui a relancé l'intérêt sur la Première Guerre mondiale. Partant de ce constat, une équipe internationale d'historiens, animée par le Centre de recherche de l'Historial de Péronne et l'Institut d'histoire du temps présent, a cherché à repenser autrement l'histoire sociale, culturelle et anthropologique des deux guerres mondiales, en s'attachant à mettre en lumière les comparaisons et filiations possibles, le poids des héritages comme la " brutalisation " ou la " banalisation ", l'écho et la mémoire de la Grande Guerre dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, trop souvent abordée depuis quelques années sous l'angle exclusif du Génocide. L'étude s'est attachée à comprendre la " violence de Guerre ". Non pas la guerre comme violence, mais les différentes modalités de violences que ces deux guerres-là ont engendrées : violences anticipées, telles les constructions de la figure de l'ennemi, violences infligées, subies ou observées, violences remémorées ou refoulées. Elle s'intéresse aux acteurs : combattants et civils ; hommes et femmes ; bourreaux, victimes et témoins ; individus, groupes et foules. Elle s'intéresse aux lieux : le champ de bataille, la ville, les camps. Elle s'intéresse aux liens entre la violence de guerre et la violence politique. Menée à plusieurs voix, de part et d'autre du 11 septembre 2001, cette étude centrée sur 1914-1945 a l'ambition de donner une perspective longue aux phénomènes de violences extrêmes.
The Iran-Iraq War
Author: Pierre Razoux
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674088638
Pages: 640
Year: 2015-11-03
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From 1980 to 1988 Iran and Iraq fought the longest conventional war of the century. It included tragic slaughter of child soldiers, use of chemical weapons, striking of civilian shipping, and destruction of cities. Pierre Razoux offers an unflinching look at a conflict seared into the region’s collective memory but little understood in the West.
Fallen Soldiers
Author: George L. Mosse
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195071395
Pages: 272
Year: 1991-12-12
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Analyzes the myth of the war experience--the mind-set that overlooked the carnage and brutality of the two world wars and justified the conflicts
A Very Long Engagement
Author: S'Bastien Japrisot
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0099449293
Pages: 312
Year: 2003
View: 368
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During the First World War five French soldiers, accused of a cowardly attempt to evade duty, are bundled into no man's land and certain death. Five bodies are later recovered; the families are notified that the men died in the line of duty... After the war Mathilde, the fiancée of one of the men, receives a letter which hints at what might have happened, and she sets off to discover the fate of her beloved amid the carnage of battlefield. Her quest becomes an unusual and engrossing thriller as she discovers an increasing number of people trying to put her off the scent. A Very Long Engagement is a suspenseful thriller and one which transforms a personal tragedy into the epitome of all wartime atrocities. The dénouement, when it finally happens, is moving and horribly convincing.
Contesting Deregulation
Author: Knud Andresen, Stefan Müller
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785336215
Pages: 244
Year: 2017-09-22
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Few would dispute that many Western industrial democracies undertook extensive deregulation in the 1970s and 1980s. Yet this narrative, in its most familiar form, depends upon several historiographical assumptions that bely the complexities and pitfalls of studying the recent past. Across thirteen case studies, the contributors to this volume investigate this "deregulatory moment" from a variety of historical perspectives, including transnational, comparative, pan-European, and national approaches. Collectively, they challenge an interpretive framework that treats individual decades in isolation and ignores broader trends that extend to the end of the Second World War.
Transforming Sudan
Author: Alden Young
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107172497
Pages: 194
Year: 2017-11-30
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This book traces the formation of the Sudanese state following the Second World War through a developmentalist ideology.
The Invention of Creativity
Author: Andreas Reckwitz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745697054
Pages: 300
Year: 2018-01-25
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Contemporary society has seen an unprecedented rise in both the demand and the desire to be creative, to bring something new into the world. Once the reserve of artistic subcultures, creativity has now become a universal model for culture and an imperative in many parts of society. In this new book, cultural sociologist Andreas Reckwitz investigates how the ideal of creativity has grown into a major social force, from the art of the avant-garde and postmodernism to the ‘creative industries’ and the innovation economy, the psychology of creativity and self-growth, the media representation of creative stars, and the urban design of ‘creative cities’. Where creativity is often assumed to be a force for good, Reckwitz looks critically at how this imperative has developed from the 1970s to the present day. Though we may well perceive creativity as the realization of some natural and innate potential within us, it has rather to be understood within the structures of a very specific culture of the new in late modern society. The Invention of Creativity is a bold and refreshing counter to conventional wisdom that shows how our age is defined by radical and restrictive processes of social aestheticization. It will be of great interest to those working in a variety of disciplines, from cultural and social theory to art history and aesthetics.